A vertical agreement is a term used in competition law to refer to agreements between companies at different levels of the supply chain. For example, a consumer electronics manufacturer could enter into a vertical agreement with a retailer under which the retailer would advertise its products against a price drop. Franchising is a form of vertical agreement that falls within the scope of Article 101 under EU competition law.  Article 4 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (the „Competition Law“) prohibits all agreements between undertakings which may prevent, restrict or distort competition. Of the above types of chords, vertical chords are the most frequently tested. Vertical restraints, such as resale price maintenance (RPM), most-favoured-nation clauses, exclusive trade agreements, rebate regimes, non-competition clauses and reverse non-competition clauses, often have results in the application of Turkish law. Contracting parties may include contractual restrictions or obligations in vertical agreements in order to protect an investment or simply to ensure day-to-day business (e.g. B distribution, delivery or purchase agreements). There is more flexibility compared to other vertical agreements. For example, under the block exemption, the following types of agreements are not considered „hardcore“: there are cases where certain types of agreements do not automatically fall within the scope of Article 101 TFEU, for example.
B.: In addition, vertical agreements seem to be more effective in commercial activities. The most frequent vertical restraints are: competition concerns arise when there is insufficient competition at one or more stages of trade. Provided that they do not contain basic restrictions (as defined in the Block Exemption Regulations), several vertical agreements may benefit from block exemptions, thus circumventing the prohibition laid down in Article 4. Below is a list of block exemption regulations that may apply, inter alia, to vertical agreements. Depending on the specific circumstances of the case, some of the following regimes may or may not apply to vertical agreements: vertical agreements are widely accepted, as they impose fewer competition concerns than horizontal agreements. Horizontal agreements are concluded between two current or potential competitors. A vertical agreement is a term used in competition law to refer to agreements between companies operating at different levels of the production/distribution chain (e.g. .